Choosing Lua as the data description and configuration language

One of the projects I work on during my spare time these days is Gru, which is an orchestration and configuration management framework written in Go and Lua.

Version 0.2.0 of Gru has incorporated HCL as part of the configuration language used for describing data structures, which was a nice addition to Gru and was a step forward to implementing the DSL language of the project.

HCL just like other similar configuration languages do one thing - they describe data structures. Of course there are alternatives such as YAML, JSON, TOML and others, but I found the syntax of HCL to be somewhat more flexible than the others and also more to my liking. Besides I haven’t used HCL in any of my projects yet, so I thought that I should just give it a try and see how it goes.

Putting it all together the initial implementation looked like this.

// Manages the tmux package
package "tmux" {
  state = "present"

// Manages the tmux configuration file
file "/home/dnaeon/.tmux.conf" {
  state = "present"
  mode = 0644
  source = "data/tmux/tmux.conf"
  require = [

The data structures described by this HCL configuration is in turn used to construct resources, which are responsible for executing idempotent operations.

Overall I was very pleased with how things have progressed so far, but few things were missing in HCL, which was an issue if I was about to have a proper DSL language for the project.

In order to provide a good DSL for the project the language I use must be able to perform other things such as integrating logic, be able to perform iterations, have conditional expressions, etc.

Unfortunately HCL does not provide support for such things, as it’s primary goal is only describing data structures, but that is the same case with YAML, JSON and TOML as well.

One way to solve part of this was to integrate HIL together with HCL.

HIL is a small embedded language for string interpolations created by Hashicorp and is primarily being used in combination with HCL, but HCL is not strictly required in order to use it.

One thing to note though is that HIL is not a general purpose programming language, so even if we go with HCL and HIL we will still not be able to use somewhat complex logic in our configurations.

Another big issue with HIL in my opinion is that even though it is described as an interpolation language it fails bad when used in intermediate interpolation, that is a variable created by the value of another variable. You can read more about this issue here.

Taking into considerations all these issues, I decided it’s time to try out something else, as clearly HCL would not be the best fit for my requirements.

Lua on the other hand seems to be exactly what I was looking for - it is a small, lightweight, fast and dynamic programming language, which can easily be embedded into a project.

Additional functionallity can be introduced in Lua by writing modules for it and it’s pretty simple to embed Lua into your Go host programs by using gopher-lua.

Recent versions of Gru now ship with Lua support as the DSL language of the project. The previous HCL configuration written in the Lua DSL looks like this.

-- Manage the tmux package
pkg ="tmux")
pkg.state = "present"

-- Manage the tmux configuration file
cfg ="/home/dnaeon/.tmux.conf")
cfg.state = "present"
cfg.mode = tonumber("0644", 8)
cfg.source = "data/tmux/tmux.conf"
cfg.require = { pkg:ID() }

-- Add the resources to catalog
catalog:add(pkg, cfg)

Since the DSL is now built on top of a real programming language we can do things like this.

for i=1, 10 do
  f ="/tmp/" .. i)
  f.state = "present"

If we had to do the same thing as the code above, but in HCL we would have to write ten file resources separately, which is a bit tedious and doesn’t seem right.

This is a simple example of what we can do with Lua, but hopefully you get the idea and see its benefits.

What’s also nice about having Lua as the DSL language for the project is that we can easily extend it - exposing Go functionality in Lua is pretty straightforward and gopher-lua provides all the necessary bits to make that happen.

Another great feature of having Lua as part of the project is that we can take advantage of using a REPL, which is a nice addition in situations when we are debugging some code or just want to test things out.

Orchestration and configuration management done via a REPL seems like a strange idea, but I’m sure this would come handy during the development process or a debug session.

In order to ensure the future growth of the project we must first ensure that the DSL language can be easily extended, and I believe that Lua is going to help me get there. It is a tiny language, but with great potential.

Written on August 23, 2016