Installing and configuring Cacti on FreeBSD
In this handbook we will have a look at Cacti - The complete RRDTool based graphing solution.
This handbook will not teach how to work with Cacti, doing so would only mean to duplicate the great documentation prepared for you by the Cacti team.
Instead here we will see how to install and configure Cacti on your FreeBSD machine, so you can use it for monitoring any device you have on your network.
So what is Cacti? Citing from the official web site of Cacti:
Cacti is a complete frontend to RRDTool, it stores all of the necessary information to create graphs and populate them with data in a MySQL database. The frontend is completely PHP driven. Along with being able to maintain Graphs, Data Sources, and Round Robin Archives in a database, cacti handles the data gathering. There is also SNMP support for those used to creating traffic graphs with MRTG.
You are advised to check and go through the Cacti Online Documentation for a comprehensive explaination of Cacti and the features it provides.
Below you will find FreeBSD specific instructions for installing and configuring Cacti. So let's go ahead and install Cacti, shall we?
- root access or sudo rights
In order to install Cacti we are going to use the FreeBSD Ports Collection
First make sure that you have updated your Ports tree, and then let's go ahead and install Cacti.
To install Cacti from the FreeBSD Ports Collection, execute the following command:
$ sudo cd /usr/ports/net-mgmt/cacti && sudo make install clean
Once the installation is over you should see something similar:
===> Returning to build of cacti-0.8.7g ===> cacti-0.8.7g depends on file: /usr/local/lib/php/20090626/xml.so - found ===> cacti-0.8.7g depends on shared library: mysqlclient.16 - found Added group "cacti". Added user "cacti". ===> Generating temporary packing list ===> Checking if net-mgmt/cacti already installed ======================================================================= Cacti is now installed. If you intall it for the first time, you may have to follow this steps to make it work correctly: 1. Create the MySQL database: # mysqladmin --user=root create cacti 2. Create a mysql user/password for cacti: (change user and/or password if required) # echo "GRANT ALL ON cacti.* TO cactiuser@localhost IDENTIFIED BY 'cactiuser'; FLUSH PRIVILEGES;" | mysql 3. Import the default cacti database: # mysql cacti < /usr/local/share/cacti/cacti.sql 4. Edit /usr/local/share/cacti/include/config.php. 5. Add the line to cron jobs with the command: # crontab -u cacti -e */5 * * * * /usr/local/bin/php /usr/local/share/cacti/poller.php > /dev/null 2>&1 6. Add alias in apache config for the cacti dir: Alias /cacti "/usr/local/share/cacti/" 7. Be sure apache gives an access to the directory ('Allow from' keywords). 8. Open a cacti login page in your web browser and login with admin/admin. If you update cacti, open a login page, an updating process will start automatically. ======================================================================= ===> Registering installation for cacti-0.8.7g ===> Cleaning for cacti-0.8.7g
Now let's continue with the configuration.
Configuring the SNMP daemon on the machines to be monitored
In this step we will configure the SNMP daemon on the FreeBSD machines to be monitored.
You can skip this step, if your machines or routers already have configured SNMP daemons.
Here we are going to use the SNMP daemon that comes with the base FreeBSD system - bsnmpd(1)
You might also want to install a more extensible SNMP daemon like net-mgmt/net-snmp, but this is not in the scope of the current handbook.
The configuration for bsnmpd(1) resides is in the /etc/snmpd.config file.
Please refer to the manual page for bsnmpd(1) for more information about the different options and explanation of them.
In the configuration we are only going to change a couple of things, so again, please refer to the manual page of bsnmpd(1) for more information regarding the rest of the configuration options.
< SNIP > # # Set some common variables # location := "example.org" contact := "email@example.com" < SNIP > # Change this! read := "bsnmpd"
In the above configuration we set the read community to bsnmpd
To enable bsnmpd(1) during boot-time, add the following lines to your /etc/rc.conf file.
# Enable bsnmpd bsnmpd_enable="YES"
Now let's start the SNMP daemon:
$ sudo /etc/rc.d/bsnmpd start
You will need to configure the SNMP daemon on each machine you want to monitor. Once you are ready with that, please proceed with the next step.
Cacti Database Configuration
Cacti is using a database backend for storing all the information about the devices it monitores.
In this step we will see how to create the database that will be used by Cacti later for storing it's data.
Assuming you have read the handbook for installing and configuring MySQL server under FreeBSD, we will now create the database for Cacti.
So, first login to the MySQL server:
# mysql -u root -h mysql.example.org -p Enter password: Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or \g. Your MySQL connection id is 55412 Server version: 5.0.91-log FreeBSD port: mysql-server-5.0.91 Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement. mysql>
Now let's create the database and user for Cacti:
mysql> CREATE DATABASE cacti DEFAULT CHARSET UTF8; Query OK, 1 row affected (0.02 sec) mysql> GRANT SELECT, INSERT, DELETE, UPDATE, INDEX, DROP, CREATE ON cacti.* to cacti_user@'monitor.example.org' IDENTIFIED BY 'some-password'; Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec) mysql>SET PASSWORD FOR cacti_user@'monitor.example.org' = PASSWORD('some-password'); Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec) mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES; Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
Keep in mind that in the above SQL statements we define the following:
- cacti - The MySQL database Cacti will use
- cacti_user - The MySQL user that Cacti will use when connecting
- **to the database
- some-password Password for the MySQL account used by Cacti
- monitor.example.org - This is the server that Cacti will be
- **running on
Now let's create the Cacti database schema. This step needs to be executed on the server Cacti will be running on, e.g. monitor.example.org
mysql> USE cacti; Database changed mysql> SOURCE /usr/local/share/cacti/cacti.sql
The above commands will create the Cacti database schema, with all it's tables and columns needed by Cacti.
Now we can configure Cacti and Apache in the next step of the handbook.
Configuring Apache and Cacti
Now let's configure Cacti, so that it uses the database we have just created.
Cacti's default install location is /usr/local/share/cacti - this is where the configuration files also reside.
Open /usr/local/share/cacti/include/config.php file for editing and enter the database name, username, password and server that will be used by Cacti:
/* make sure these values refect your actual database/host/user/password */ $database_type = "mysql"; $database_default = "cacti"; $database_hostname = "mysql.example.org"; $database_username = "cacti_user"; $database_password = "cactipassword"; $database_port = "3306";
Now let's configure our Apache vhost for Cacti.
Assuming you have read the handbook for installing and configuring Apache under FreeBSD, we will now make some minor changes to the Apache configuration, so that our default Apache vhost points to Cacti.
# # Virtual Hosts # # If you want to maintain multiple domains/hostnames on your # machine you can setup VirtualHost containers for them. Most configurations # use only name-based virtual hosts so the server doesn't need to worry about # IP addresses. This is indicated by the asterisks in the directives below. # # Please see the documentation at # <URL:http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/vhosts/> # for further details before you try to setup virtual hosts. # # You may use the command line option '-S' to verify your virtual host # configuration. # # Use name-based virtual hosting. # NameVirtualHost *:80 # # VirtualHost example: # Almost any Apache directive may go into a VirtualHost container. # The first VirtualHost section is used for all requests that do not # match a ServerName or ServerAlias in any <VirtualHost> block. # # <VirtualHost *:80> ServerAdmin firstname.lastname@example.org ServerName monitor.example.org ServerAlias monitor.example.org DocumentRoot "/usr/local/share/cacti" <Directory "/usr/local/share/cacti"> AllowOverride None Order Allow,Deny Allow from all </Directory> ErrorLog "/var/log/apache/httpd-monitor.example.org-error.log" CustomLog "/var/log/apache/httpd-monitor.example.org-access.log" common <VirtualHost>
The next thing to do is to add a cron job that polls your machines and routers each 5 minutes.
To do that add the following lines to your /etc/crontab file:
# Call Cacti poller each 5 minutes */5 * * * * cacti /usr/local/bin/php /usr/local/share/cacti/poller.php > /dev/null 2>&1
Now, let's start Apache and start using Cacti. First we test the configuration for errors, and then we start Apache.
$ sudo apachectl configtest Syntax OK
Configuration is OK, so now we can start Apache:
$ sudo apachectl start
Now, please continue reading through the next chapter in order to do the initial setup of Cacti and start using it.
Before we can start using and monitoring devices via Cacti we first need to do the initial setup for Cacti.
To do that, open a browser and open the Cacti web interface, which should be on the http://monitor.example.org/ Apache vhost we've installed and configured.
Please follow the steps provided by the Cacti installer, so that you can do the initial configuration of Cacti.
When you are invited to login, use admin for the username and password - right after that you will be advised to change the default password to one of your choice.
Now you can start adding the machines and routers you want to be monitored by Cacti.
To do that just go to Console -> Devices -> Add and enter the needed information of the machine to be monitored.
Again, I would recommend that you now go and read the great Cacti online documentation, for more comprehensive explanation of how to use and configure the different aspects of Cacti.
Installing Cacti Spine
This step is optional. It just covers how to install and configure Cacti Spine - a fast poller for Cacti.
Spine is another SNMP poller that can be used by Cacti. It's a good replacement for the default cmd.php poller that comes with Cacti and is quite fast.
If your environment constist of a lot of machines you might want to prefer using Cacti Spine just for that reason - performance.
To install Cacti Spine, we are going to use again the FreeBSD Ports Collection.
$ sudo cd /usr/ports/net-mgmt/cacti-spine && make install clean
Once the installation of net-mgmt/cacti-spine is over, you should see something similar:
===> Installing for spine-0.8.7.g_1 ===> Generating temporary packing list ===> Checking if net-mgmt/cacti-spine already installed ===> Registering installation for spine-0.8.7.g_1 ===> SECURITY REPORT: This port has installed the following files which may act as network servers and may therefore pose a remote security risk to the system. /usr/local/bin/spine If there are vulnerabilities in these programs there may be a security risk to the system. FreeBSD makes no guarantee about the security of ports included in the Ports Collection. Please type 'make deinstall' to deinstall the port if this is a concern. For more information, and contact details about the security status of this software, see the following webpage: http://www.cacti.net/cactid_info.php ===> Cleaning for spine-0.8.7.g_1
Let's configure Spine. Open /usr/local/etc/spine.conf and enter the needed information - database server, username, password, database name and port.
DB_Host mysql.example.org DB_Database cacti DB_User cacti_user DB_Pass cactipassword DB_Port 3306 DB_PreG 0
Now we need to tell Cacti to use the Spine poller, instead of the default cmd.php one.
To do that, login to your Cacti web interface on http://monitor.example.org/ and go to Console -> Settings.
Then click on the Paths tab and somewhere near the bottom you should see a field to enter the Cacti Spine location poller. Enter the following in the field - /usr/local/bin/spine and then Save.
Then click on the Poller tab and choose Spine for the Poller Type option and again Save.
Again on the Poller tab, you can further configure Spine - how many threads to use, maximum SNMP OIDs per SNMP Get Request, etc.